5 Ways To Make Money This Summer! ☼ On The Internet

making money as a teenager doesn’t have to be hard maybe you’re planning on going to prom next year or you want to go to Europe this summer whatever you want to do it’s probably gonna cost you some money here are five ways to easily earn what you want this summer [Music] well hello people of the Internet hey guys it’s Ava and today’s video is going to be actually really cool new location this is not a permanent location I just thought with this video it’d be kind of cool to film in front of my office don’t get excited it’s literally just a corner of my bedroom today give me a cool video because I’m going to be teaching all of you guys how to make money off the internet it’s easy making money as a teenager is extremely hard I know from personal experience I’m a teenager still and it’s hard to be accepted and gets jobs as a teenager nobody wants to hire you they think that you’re not competent enough but you know what you gotta push through it me specifically I’ve learned going throughout high school that if nobody hires you you’ve got to hire yourself so it seems easy and you probably are asking Ava okay that sounds great but how am I gonna make money I got you so for today’s video I’m gonna tell you five foolproof ways that you can make money off the internet starting today does that sound awesome I’m pretty sure it does so if you guys want to learn how to make money off the internet then keep on watching so the first way to make money off the internet is for all the people that love to make crafts whatever you like to make you can do it and make money off the internet now if you’re not into online selling and having to package and ship things up selling things on your Facebook page is so easy I used to do it in high school so basically in high school I figured out that I can make really cool hair barrettes like cool pins you can tuck your hair back with and stuff and I just got stuff at Michael’s for like three dollars and I sold them on my Facebook page to people that went to my high school so all you have to do is make things in your own home take photos of it post it on your Facebook wall to all your friends and say hey I’m selling these like DIY cups for five dollars anyone want to buy them and then people will say like yeah I’ll buy them and then you’ll sell them at school pretty sure that’s illegal but I did it so I mean you know I also sold brownies on my Facebook page to people at school and whatever do was I’d make the brownies at home and then I’d package those super cute like for Mother’s Day or for maybe like an anniversary or something and I would sell them at high school so those are awesome ways to make money off the internet if you’re not into exchanging with people that you don’t know now the second way to make money off the internet is by cleaning out your closet and this is so amazing because not only number one are you making a ton of money but number two you’re cleaning your bedroom now this is kind of the same thing as the last one you can either sell your clothes online with sites like Poshmark a thread flip or something like that these sites are really amazing because then you have like millions upon millions of people that are looking at your closet and want to kind of a bargain with you it’s super easy all you do is you separate the clothes that you don’t want anymore maybe it’s something that you bought two years ago and you’ve worn it twice you separate it into a pile and you just take photos of it you post them on the site it spells it’s so easy but if you’re not into selling things to random people like I said before then you guys can also use the Facebook trick closet fails so closet sales became really popular in my high school about two years ago and basically what it is is taking photos of a bunch of clothes you don’t wear and posting them in a facebook album you can even do it on Instagram if you like really want to people will comment and be like oh well I’ll buy it at school the next day what I like to do is package them into little like shopping bags and then they fill it to them super easy making money off the internet and the third way to make money off the internet is obviously YouTube and I love YouTube because it’s not even about making the money it’s essentially doing what you love on camera and the cool thing about YouTube is that you don’t have to be a beauty guru you don’t have to be super funny if you love cars nail polish if you love shopping maybe knitting whatever you love put it on YouTube maybe it’s a hundred views you’re still getting paid for those hundred views so essentially you’re getting paid doing what you love and it’s a great thing to do just if you are bored and have a hobby you guys want to show to the world and keep in mind a lot of people don’t know this you don’t have to have ten thousand subscribers to be making money off of YouTube you can make money the second start your channel it’s so easy all you do is monetize your account bingo so the fourth way to making money online is photography and this is so much fun you don’t have to be a professional photographer to make money off of photography so to make money off of photography on the Internet there are a couple ways to doing it so the first thing is having some source of a camera it could be your iPhone camera it could be a like little point and shoot camera it could be a DSLR camera so what you’re gonna need to have to set yourself up is an Instagram page or a Facebook page for your photography and you’re also gonna want a few shots to show people so maybe just shoot a free round of shots on your friends and family first to kind of get you prepared to post them then after you have 10 of your best shots ever edited to perfection you’re gonna post those on your Facebook and on your Instagram and then the cool thing about photography is people will find your Instagram and you’ll have your little email on your Instagram about me and people who love your work contact you and be like hey so-and-so I love your photography can you shoot my senior photos can you shoot my engagement photos I don’t know what your life is and then you guys can like charge them your rate and it’s awesome people love to be photographed so if you charge them a cheap rate and you charge enough people you can make $100 easily in a week now the fifth way to making money off of the internet is so easy and it’s super easy because you can do it in your bed at night at like 4:00 in the morning instead of tumblr you could be making money so the fifth thing is online surveys and I’ve been taking online surveys since I was like a sophomore in high school just because they’re so easy the website that I use is called Opinion Outpost and basically online surveys are awesome because companies that are huge like Apple I don’t know mason jar there are huge companies out there filled with old men that don’t know anything about teenagers so if you’re a teenager and you’re in the demographic that they’re looking for maybe they need help deciding what to take out of a cell phone what to put in to answer a survey like times do text a day how many times do you touch your phone a day stuff like that that’s super easy and you’re making money off of it because you’re basically helping them develop a better company SUEZ can be taking online surveys whenever you’re bored and be winning things like money gift cards to like Amazon or your favorite stores or just credit to all of your favorite online stores and the cool thing about Opinion Outpost is that quarterly they have a ten thousand dollar giveaway prize and you can enter as many times as you want so on top of making money off of surveys you can also potentially be making ten thousand dollars what’s not to love and Opinion Outpost is free to join pretty cool so those are all of my ways to making money off the internet online and I’m gonna link all of those websites that I listed down below you guys got some inspiration on making money give this video a thumbs up and we’re all going to be rolling in the dough and just like throwing bands I make her dance [Music] if you’re a teenager likes me know that it’s not impossible to making money no matter how many times somebody tells you it is it’s not be sure to follow me on my Instagram Twitter vine account Facebook page all of those good things I love you guys I’ll talk to you guys soon oh I wish it was easier back some wallet

Making Money Online, Surveys and Payment Proof 2017 | Carly

hi everybody welcome to the video today um today’s video is a little different from what I have been doing but I just wanted to share this with everybody because I think it’s really awesome um lately I have been taking online surveys way more often than usual because I found a really really great site that pays pretty well for a survey site okay and they also have like payment options you can get like 200 different kinds of gift cards they have cash options which are PayPal direct deposit or a check of course and since I was a little nervous the first time I actually had them send me a check you know cuz I had physical proof to show you guys you know so the name of the site is called insta GC I’ve been on there for a couple of years now but I really didn’t start actually using site until recently like over Christmas time um and I actually got to check a payment from one survey one survey was worth $30 I’m going to show you that check in a second but I just wanted to talk about the site real quick so you know what you’re getting into if you go and try it okay it’s free to sign up first of all second of all it’s not a get-rich-quick type of thing you’re not gonna make thousands of dollars you know you’re gonna make little bits of money like um let’s say I do about five surveys every day for seven days I would probably earn anywhere from 25 to 50 bucks you know it’s not going to be tons and tons of money so don’t go into it thinking you know each survey is gonna be worth $30 or $50 that’s not really how they work um on this particular site each survey you see in the list actually has an estimated time so you’re not going to end up sitting there taking a survey for like an hour and only get paid 20 cents you know it’s not going to be like that you’re gonna know how long it’s going to take you to take the survey and how much you’re getting paid before you even click to go to the survey okay and most of the time the surveys range from 50 cents to $1 per survey and they’re usually about 15 to 20 minutes long so if you really think about it the amount of surveys that they have on there every day you could make a lot of money if you put a lot of time into it but for me I don’t have tons and tons of time um so I usually spend about an hour two hours on there you know just in my free time while I’m not doing anything else so why not make a little money right okay well here is the check I’m going to show you the tab which is actually it says right here the survey company which this is a company that’s affiliated with the site I use um a lot of their surveys show up on there um I’m just going to put my finger over my information show you so you can see there is my name okay and then there is the amount right there all right you can see the dates everything I just got this in the mail today all right so there and there there’s my wonderful thirty dollar check and again that was from only one survey so you get lucky sometimes you find surveys on there that are worth a lot more than the twenty five cent 50 cent ones um but that’s not all the time I mean you got a check you got a check back once in a while um and you’ll be able to find those like I said I got lucky finding this one and I’m always checking I go on there at least once a day just to see what’s available in the little survey tab and once in a while they have won five dollars ten dollars and they’re usually only like 15 to 20 minutes long I mean you got 20 minutes why not make a dollar you know and it’s just it’s just fun I’m kind of getting addicted to it so I hope that I kind of gave you a little insight to what this site is about if not if you have any more questions feel free to leave me some comments um ask me anything you want to ask me regarding survey sites because I have been to almost all of them and this one is probably the best one that I have found um yeah that’s about it so thanks for watching today don’t forget to subscribe and bye

HOW TO MAKE MONEY ON THE INTERNET AS A TEENAGER, YOUNG ADULT AND JOBLESS PERSON

[Music] hey guys welcome to my channel I hope you up all well I am very excited today I really wanted to do this video for a while last year I actually did a video on how not to go broke and to save money I’m gonna link that below because I really feel like it’s still super valuable but today I wanted to give you guys some tips and tricks for making money online because I know it is hard out here sometimes and I know not everyone has a job and I know that sometimes you just need to make some extra cash flow for the weekend and I feel like money something that a lot of people don’t really like to talk about I feel like it’s a little bit of a trick to kind of let those that are in the know keep known but people who don’t know are never allowed to know and I don’t think it’s fair and I think we should all eat and I think we should all grow and I think we should all be open to opportunity and information is power so today I’m gonna share what I know about making money on the internet that anybody and everybody can do so number one it’s YouTube as you can see I am a YouTube creator and I am able to make a living doing this now obviously I have quite a few subscribers we thank God but anybody can start a YouTube channel you do not need money to start a YouTube channel you do not need a network or a special account to start a YouTube channel all you need is a camera and some I DS if you’ve got any form of ideas that you feel like you want to share with the world YouTube is a great way to monetize that when I started on YouTube almost over five years ago I never made a single penny because there was no form of monetization for three years I did youtube without making any earnings but I was passionate about it so I do think it’s really important that if you are going to start a YouTube channel make sure it’s not just about making money because it’s not a quick moneymaker but it’s maybe about sharing your passions but you can definitely do that how it works when it comes to monetization is literally you make videos and there are ads that run against your videos the more people that watch your videos the more money you make on your ads it’s as simple as that you to share the money with Google I believe an Adsense and then you get a share of that money as well you can get popular videos by doing stuff that is trending like celebrity gossip or celebrity news or breaking news from wherever you are in the world as well as doing videos on products that you like maybe entertaining people what will happen is that you will have a channel and YouTube will say you I believe you’re actually able to monetize straight away when I started you had to have like two thousand views or something before you can monetize which is what I never monetize for so long but you can monetize straight away and what you’ll see is when you reach over 60 pounds you’ll begin to receive money into your bank account that you set up where your adsense account if you want more information on that you can Google Adsense and how it actually works and create yourself an adsense account after that it’s also blogging and a writing content similar to YouTube in that is you’re producing your own content based on information writing a blog is a great way to also do that and the same mechanism is Adsense as well if you write content that is relevant then you also get ads that come up beside your blog besides your written content or images and you’ll be able to make money if you want to promote that stuff then social media is a great way to do that so another way to make money is affiliate linking if there is a website that you like or a product that you like online you can use sites such as Skimlinks rewards style and I believe this one could add Network I can’t quite remember and what happens is that every time someone buys from that link it might be your auntie it might be your friend it might be your followers you are able to make a small Commission on that link now a lot of people do this on Twitter and for instance I also will say I buy this necklace from necklace from Urban Outfitters and I will share a link with you that is an affiliate link so that I make you know 20 P on you buying the necklace but if I get 20 people make doing that then how much money did I make was my calculations 20 P times 24 pounds for parents yeah I’ll make four pounds on that so I know that sounds it’s not that much money but it can actually build up you can link electronics you can link home where there’s so many things that you can link and if you like searching the web for really nice and cool product and you want to share that with your friends or your family or your social network then you can definitely do it however I wouldn’t advise just putting links out and saying buy this link I think it has to be links that are associated to what you do or what your friends and your family actually want to see from you usually a lot of these accounts work by your threshold and but I think anyone can set it up if you have a blog or an email address and then they will sign you up to their network and you will be able to log in and start sharing your links of your friends and your followers so after that if you want to make money it’s all about selling your skill if you are good at something you should try and make money on it there are sites that I like such as people per hour this is a site that I go to all the time when I’m looking for a graphic designer when I’m looking for an editor when I want a logo made or a banner made I go on to then I’ll say graphic designer and lots of people around the world are sharing their skills they’re able to make money from the comfort of their own home by providing me a service based on what they actually know how to do I’ve actually seen there are people can buy an hourly of a guy who looks like mr. t and he says happy birthday so you did it or whatever he sells that for a hundred and fifty pounds and we’ll say happy birthday Michael because he looks like mr. t if you are good at writing if you’re good at taking photos if you are good at Photoshop people are out there looking for your skills and looking for your services you can make some money while doing it and people per hour is just one of the sites that I know that does that and there may be many others and I’m also going to link everything in the description bar below so that you guys have some good insight into it so next if you can create a product it is a great way to make some money I’ve told you guys this story many times but is one of the ways that I made money when I was a teen I used to braid hair at lunchtime I myself like leave school like ten pounds each day there’s like 40 pounds a week and for a thirteen-year-old that’s a lot of money so if you have a product or a skill or something that you can sell to friends and family or to a community then make some money on it you don’t need to make 5,000 pounds every day you can make 50 pounds or 10 pounds or 5 pounds but it all adds up another site that I really like is teespring if you have a design you can create a design on teespring and then you can um sell that design so I’m thinking about doing t-shirt as I I don’t want the fuss of packaging it and sending it and doing it all myself I might just use teespring to do it so you also probably want to have like a closet clear out I’m sure you know of a bunch of stuff that you’ve got in your house or in your closet that you’re not even using anymore go through have a clear out and sell it online the pop is an app that I really like for selling clothes it’s for fashion-forward people bloggers and all that kind of stuff they’re forever on there selling stuff selling their old clothes or swapping it out so finally you can also take online surveys there are lots of different survey companies out there where people want your opinion one of the survey companies that I have talked about many times is Opinion Outpost basically all it is is companies and brands such as Amazon or Apple or I don’t know t-mobile or something lots of these different brands want to know your opinion on their product or their services and you can do this from the comfort of your bed at home basically fill in a form say how many times you use your phone a day and you can make money while doing it now somewhere like Opinion Outpost they give you vouchers gift cards coupons they also have a quarterly prize draw of $10,000 as well and it is free to join up and you can receive an email into your gmail surveys they’re in great way to make it a little bit of extra money online if you’re just like I’m sitting at home rather than wasting time on tumblr or Twitter you can be making money okay so glass I really hoped you enjoyed that video and it gave you some ideas on how to actually make some money online I know it is hard out there and I know that a lot of people don’t share this information and I have no problem sharing I think sharing is caring or need to blow it and develop and I’m definitely here for like giving all the information I have I’m also gonna be doing my live chat today I’m so excited about it it’s at 8 o’clock tonight I’m gonna link it below and I don’t know we’re gonna talk about so Nev a comment if there’s anything you know you want to talk about let me know I’m going to do it but I’m gonna see if this can be a regular thing so thank you for watching guys and I’ll see you all later [Music]

Is It A Scam!? Testing Online Survey Websites

hey guys welcome back to my channel today we’re doing another installment of random slash weird ways to make money on the internet today’s is the most requested it’s to test out if online surveys are actually legit so I’m gonna test a few of them and see if they actually work let’s do it alright so the first one that I’m gonna test is Opinion Outpost because i’ve heard of it before I mean this website just looks really gimmicky I kind of hate how it looks okay so then you just fill in basic info all right it says my first survey is ready so let’s see I’m interested in what are they gonna ask for me oh this is probably just to like figure out your demographic please confirm your employment status I’m self-employed which best describes your current self-employment these are really boring questions so far which best describes your department video production entertainer oh my god it’s an actor slash model such a youtuber that’s hilarious I have you deeper on here and what are you in the decision to purchase products or services in any of the fun areas accounting or tax or visit insurance pretty much everything alright so I just finished the first survey and it says congrats you’ve completed a profile so now I can take an actual one so let’s try it because yeah that one’s just asking all about you okay let’s see this oh this is kind of a similar thing it just is like asking about you using five words tell us what personal goals you would like to achieve in the next five years I hate that okay so now that I finished that one it says earn 25 points in just 34 minutes basic questions to start of course where do you live who are you what do you do oh it’s a survey about health care that’s kind of interesting do you or anyone and your household currently take any of the following medications when you think of hospitals in your area which ones come to mind first cedars-sinai I’ve never actually been to it right now who asked you some questions about the hospital you mentioned but I’ve never been to it okay whatever how familiar are you with it not really I guess I’ll put two because I’ve seen it okay so I just finished that survey it took like 30 minutes I think but now I have 25 points whatever that means so I’m gonna go to my account and try and figure out like what the points equal so it says that you can redeem a hundred points for $10 in paypal and it took me like 30 minutes to get 25 points so that is really not good that’s like what 250 an hour or something like that the good thing about this I don’t think you have to be a specific age to do it but I don’t know for sure but I got this email and it says five opinion points for a ten minute survey so five minutes I’ll just do it let’s see what this one’s about okay it says equity split and team relational norms what why did they think I was a good pick for this one you currently the owner or one of the owners of a venture startup such a business I always said I didn’t qualify it said thanks for my time did they get any points I don’t think I got a good point from that guys I’ll try another one it says take a survey so let’s see if there’s any available oh this isn’t even an actual one this was just one that would get me more surveys which of the following conditions – I have none I don’t watch TV s I don’t I don’t really have cable what so the following activity is do you plan to do in the next 12 months purchase a vacation home I wish ya none of these so since Opinion Outpost didn’t really have anything that I could actually take I’m gonna try another popular one that’s called swag bucks where you got to sign up all over again that’s kind of annoying okay now I have two swag bucks get free gift cards for answering service and brands so it’s pretty obvious like why they pay like they want the like market research it’s like a focus group online okay Wow now we have all these other ways add the swag button wow so this actually has a lot more stuff I like the interface of it oh you’re gonna earn swag bucks by just like buying stuff that you kind of buy anyway you can watch a slideshow like I’m guessing it’s like a really like boring slideshow a health pledge and get one swag bucks so 9 surprising facts about diabetes so I just have to click through this I’m just looking at a bunch of ads right now this is so strange it’s gonna keep it through 9 surprising facts oh you have to wait for the countdown to finish before clicking through that’s so funny so they want you to like wait now we’re on this page gotta wait 7 seconds next page there’s only six sides so I got one swag book for that let us entertain you this is a 26 minute video and you’re looking at six swag bucks you can earn up to 500 sewing bucks per day watching unique videos it’s really a lot to this one like Opinion Outpost wants nothing like this to be honest like they have way more stuff on here okay what’s this video gonna be oair plan okay kind of cool I guess klm oh this is another ad isn’t it oh I get it you have to watch night you have to watch like a series of videos everyone’s like 20 of them 500 swag bucks and we’ll get you a find on Amazon giftcard so you can get a $5 amazon you’ve heard every day but like you’re probably taking a long time considering I would have to watch like 20 minutes worth of videos for like saying this is interesting I’ll keep trying the fun see how it goes alright so now it’s Thursday I’m gonna try Opinion Outpost again see if we can get anything okay I found one so it’s only five minutes so what time did you watch TV yesterday which television stations do you watch so that little preliminary survey took like five minutes and now I can earn 5 points if I take another 10 minute survey but now I just have to select if me or any of my roommates have purchased any of this stuff replacement toothbrush heads I think it purchased like a brush so basically when you do the math five points is only fifty cents so I only got 50 cents in this eight minute survey doesn’t seem worth it to me I don’t know I’ve now been on this Opinion Outpost website for like a half-hour and gotten 50 cents alright so now it’s Friday and I’m just gonna go over the experience of this is it worth it so on Opinion Outpost i have 57 points I did seven total surveys and some of those weren’t complete somewhere like you didn’t match so 57 points pretty much translates to 5 dollars and 70 cents so let’s see what we can redeem this for so you can redeem it for PayPal cash but you have to have a hundred points Amazon giftcard I basically earned $5 and I definitely spent over an hour doing this I probably spent at least two hours maybe more taking these surveys so that is a terrible wage out really wait so that’s like 250 an hour like that’s so bad so I’ll redeem the Amazon giftcard just to check and see like if this is for real because there’s always that chance this is all a scam and like it’s not next onto swagbucks the other one that we tried halfway through the week I think swag bucks gives you more of an opportunity to earn points but their points are worth so much less that I decided early on it wasn’t worth it so I got 15 swag bucks which is basically 15 cents and obviously you can’t get anything with that okay no you can do charity donation so we’ll donate to the Humane Society this is what we’re gonna do with it 15 swag bucks donate the actual surveys though I feel like are not worth it you can get more for your time on Opinion Outpost wag bucks I would only use it for the cash back like you can play games and earn if you shop online you can earn you know so if you guys want to try it out I’ll link them down below oh swag bucks you only need to be like 13 to sign up so I think it’s really good actually if you aren’t old enough to get a job like if you’re 13 then you can make like a little bit of money from this but then once you’re at the age to get a job it just seems like you’re spending so much time for like not very much I so comment below like if there’s other sites that are better than these two that you know of or anything like that I’m very interested to see haven’t anyone else’s experience on this also you guys this is a part of my series of testing weird ways to make money online so if you haven’t seen the other ones go check them out I have tried walking dogs on a dog walking app I’ve tried flip I tried flipping clothes and I’m currently in the process of testing sweat coins which a bunch you guys commented to try yeah okay I think that’s it for this video again let me know if you tried any of them below and this video a like or dislike if you didn’t like it give it a like if you liked it and whatever if you didn’t yeah just like it I don’t care okay I will see you guys in my next video bye [Music]

How To REALLY Make Thousands Online EASY (no survey bs lol)

yeah im sorry i dont have time for some bs opinion surveys. This is if you really tryna make some coins hunty.

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HOW TO MAKE $500 A DAY DOING ONLINE SURVEYS

what’s up are you looking for ways to make some extra money on the side by using the Internet one way to make money guaranteed is by using online survey sites you may have heard of these before basically all you have to do is answer some questions through different surveys and that’s it you know you make money it’s very simple but there are tons and tons and tons of different sites to choose from and it’s hard to find one that actually is worth your time you know because most of them are like scams or they don’t even pay you hardly anything so I’m going to show you my favorite survey site that I’ve been using for years since I was like a teenager I couldn’t get a job because I was too young and this is what it is to make money this is a website called vendor comm it’s the best one I’ve came across and trust me I’ve searched far and wide for good ones so just go in a description of this video and click the link and it will bring you right to this page right here you can get a $2.00 bonus by signing up and filling out your first survey so that’s cool this right here is the front page of the website you’re going to want to click the sign up button and fill out your information don’t worry it’s confidential they just need to verify everything you know make sure that you’re an actual person and then when you’re all set up this is what it looks like so as you can see we can see exactly how much money you’re going to get for completing that survey some of them are actually pretty low but you can complete them like 10 times a day so that adds up to like several dollars so there’s lots of opportunity to make money since most survey sites only give you a few each day so like I kind of limits the amount of money you can make you know so when you click on one of them you’re going to see a page that looks similar to this this is where they ask you a few questions where you do the survey to see if you qualify you just quickly answer the questions as honest as possible basically sometimes you don’t qualify for that particular survey but they will give you another one to try sometimes it takes a few tries to get some that qualify but the more you do the more your qualify for more in the future so you doesn’t have to keep doing it until you get one that qualifies but you know it usually doesn’t take it only will be like one or two that you have to keep trying it’s not like you’re never going to qualify for any you’ll definitely qualify for something you have to keep trying so that’s basically window research yeah my favorite online survey sites that I’ve used for years I’ll put the link in the description for you to click on the website and to check them out and to start today start making money today so it’s really amazing and I want you to have the opportunity to make money by using the Internet it’s completely free you know you’re making cash money it gets into your PayPal you know it’s the highest paying website it’s just I swear by this website you know this is the best one that I have tried so far and let me know in the comment section what do you think about this website and definitely try this one out like if you don’t try any website serve a website out try this one or let this be the first one you try it will change your life it’s amazing so click the link in the description and sign up and start completing surveys and start making money I’ll see you guys in my next video

13 Best Apps to Make Money Taking Surveys Online

hey guys justin bryant here from self-made success.com in this video I’m going to show you the 13 best apps to make money from taking surveys online so if you want to make some extra money you want to basically just do some of this in your free time do a few surveys answer a few questions give your opinion out and get paid to do it then these are 13 of the best and most highly rated apps that you can do this with so the first one is called inbox dollars and inbox dollars is nice because not only do they let you make money from surveys not only are they a very highly rated app with four stars out of 62,000 plus ratings that’s just on Android alone but they also give you a lot of other ways to make money so you can also make money checking email searching the internet watching videos referring friends to use it and things like that so obviously this video is more geared towards surveys but you know you can kind of see what this looks like they have all kinds of different offers where you earn money from them it tells you kind of what you have as far as how much money is worth instead of how many points and having to do all these exchanges of points and stuff like that so it cuts out that kind of hassle from having to deal with all those points and redeeming them for rewards they actually tell you how much money you actually make from what you’re doing so inbox dollars definitely one of the top ones I recommend as far as giving you lots of options while also offering surveys number two is swag bucks so swag bucks is another one they have a couple different apps I’m going to show you one is this one right here which is the swag bucks serve a specific app it’s not as highly rated they don’t give you as many choices of what you can do to make money on this one this is just surveys only you can kind of see what it looks like but you redeem everything for gift cards and other rewards but you know they also offer PayPal which I always think is a nice bonus it’s a lot better to do something like PayPal in my opinion than it is to just do like a gift card but this is specific to surveys if you want the main app for swag bucks it’s called swag bucks best app that pays and it gives you a lot more options for how you make money so you can watch videos you can surf the internet as well as take surveys and things like that so swag bucks the main app or swag bucks answer either way made by the same company and you can make money from surveys number three surveys on the go so surveys on the go the reason I like this one and as you can see a lot of others do as well this is one of the highest-rated on my list of top survey apps you can see it’s a four-point four out of five on Google Play but surveys on the go is a free app that allows you to make money specifically from surveys so they pretty much specialize in surveys they don’t really give you a lot of other options but they do what they do very well so it’s very simple it tells you what category they’re in what the survey is kind of about and it tells you how much each survey is going to pay you in terms of dollars instead of just being like oh well you have to earn a thousand credits and then exchange the credits where five thousand credits equals five dollars to this gift card so they don’t overcomplicate it they just tell you exactly how much money in the currency you use will be paid to you from each survey so it’s much easier to just get an idea of which ones you should do and you know you can make some pretty decent extra money if you do all these surveys another one is Google opinion rewards and you know Google is going to deliver a pretty product considering they’re one of the biggest companies in the world and they have a reputation they have to hold up as a quality company they have a four star rating out of five hundred thousand plus reviews definitely the most reviewed and the most used of any of these survey apps I’m going to mention but this is just on Google Play they have a lot of users of course but for Google the difference between this and a lot of the others is of course it’s made by a top company but it’s also going to pay you in Google Play credits so you see here you earn in Google Play credit instead of actual just cash so or you don’t really get a choice of how you get your money in in other words instead of getting it through PayPal or having the choice to do an Amazon or Starbucks gift card you don’t really have any of that it’s just all google play credits but pretty much all of your entertainment needs can be met by Google Play because they offer video games music books movies TV shows and Android apps all in Google Play alone so these credits can go a long way towards that type of stuff number five is ipoll ipoll has been around a good while and they are one of the top survey specific apps for paying you they have just under four star rating out of just under eighteen thousand users on Google Play alone and they ask you to kind of create a profile and then you can start taking surveys so they have all types of different surveys you can search for something specifically which is nice if you want to do surveys on specific types of categories you can get notifications you can see push notifications as an option right there and you just have all kinds of different surveys but it will actually remind you to take some if you trying to make some extra money from me so nice but you can redeem your rewards on a ipoll website so just keep that in mind you have to go to actual ipoll comm website to redeem your rewards number six is YouGov so you gov is probably a little lesser-known than the ones I’ve mentioned so far but they have daily surveys that you can do and it’s still a really nice app one thing I love about you go that kind of makes them a little different is you can see how other people answered the questions and that can actually maybe give you some more incentive to keep doing it because you’re interested in seeing what other people think besides just yourself so instead of just doing like a big multiple choice question air and just answering one and then go into the next one you actually get to see what other people say as well so that’s nice good rating not as many users as the others but it’s still effective number seven is called I say so you may have heard of I say mobile it’s actually called I say Rewards your opinion now but they have been around a while they are a top survey app and they specialize in surveys they don’t really have no not like inbox dollars or swag bucks where they give you all these different choices of stuff to do it’s pretty much just polls and surveys they will give you notifications on your lock screen for new surveys that you can take they have a lot of different rewards you can do and they tell you of course how much your points can get you as you take more surveys it tells you kind of the progress bar of how much farther you have to go in your survey which is nice if you’re kind of timing yourself maybe you’re waiting in line somewhere maybe you’re in a drive-through or something trying to get through a survey pretty quickly it’ll actually tell you your progress on that little bar there so a lot of them don’t do that which is nice that they do but and then it tells you how many points and the duration so it’s very you know user-friendly as far as giving you an idea of how long you’ll take to do these surveys but I say mobile spin around a good while and it’s it’s a reputable company and you can make some nice extra money from that number eight is quick thoughts quick thoughts is also very highly rated one of the higher rated ones it’s four stars actually a little over four stars i think yeah 4.1 stars and it’s got just under fifty one thousand people that have reviewed it on google play alone so it’s definitely one of the more popular ones and the thing that they do is they pay you an amazon gift card so you don’t really have a choice of how you get paid so if you’re looking for PayPal money or you’re looking for actual checks in the mail in cash or you want credits to something besides Amazon maybe you don’t use Amazon that much then this is not going to be a great app for you but if you use Amazon which pretty much has everything you could ever want to buy on there then you get paid an Amazon gift cards and you can get a lot of them through this site because they have a lot of sources which means they have a lot of surveys meaning you can get paid more they have over 1,000 sources as you can see you just share your opinions and it’s on your phone so it’s mobile and it’s easy to use you can find surveys you want to search for something specific they’ll even do location-based and stuff like that so they have all kinds of stuff that you can do a lot of different types of surveys because of their vast amount of sources and they help you save money on Amazon number 9 is cash reward so cash reward is an app that’s also highly rated one of the better ratings it’s over four stars I have 16,000 plus reviews on Google Play alone and what’s good what’s good about them is they do offer PayPal as you can see here they offer Amazon PayPal and a few other for converting your points to money but I think PayPal is usually the way to go so you can put it directly in your account or you can use is use it straight from PayPal and you just kind of create a quick account add your email and everything 4.3 stars definitely the highest rated on this list but you can also make money from other things kind of like inbox dollars and some of these others like swag bucks where you can actually make money from also downloading free apps downloading paid apps or trying them out registering for free sites watching ads playing free games you can get paid from a lot of different things so they’re just a solid app they really don’t have a lot of weaknesses number 10 is survey many so survey many kind of specializes more in surveys you can see this with Apple looks like it’s got a very good rating not quite as many users not quite as well known as some of these others I’ve been shinned but they do have a lot of different rewards they also have promotions that they’re doing all the time as you can see this is an example of a sonic drive-in thing that they have going on but you can earn rewards you get points you redeem those points when you click the button in the lower left corner one of these will probably show you that button yes see you down here you select redeem rewards that bottom left corner button and then you can exchange your points for money but they have stuff about like your experiences with restaurants what kind of music you listen to or they have all kinds of stuff that you can do they have all kinds of different rewards as you can see all these different gift cards you can get and things like that but in their highly rated so that’s always good when you know that you can kind of trust the app because a lot of people have tried it and given their thoughts on it number eleven easy shift and easy shift is not quite as highly rated but it still has about three stars which is decent it’s not as widely used as some of the other ones but it’s still one of the top survey apps if you just want to do as many surveys and make as much extra money as possible you know you can make probably an extra you know few hundred few thousand dollars a year depending on how many of these you actually do and how consistently you do them but easy shift is another one to do that if you’re just trying to do as many as possible you might want to throw in there they are more location-based in a way one nice thing about them that kind of separates them from some others depending on what you’re comparing it to is they do not have restrictions or an application process so you can see there in the features it doesn’t have any of that stuff in there which is really nice because it allows you to automatically be able to partake in any of the surveys that they have on they’re not worrying about what your occupation is your education level your demographic or any of that stuff so they’re not picky about who takes their surveys and that’s one really nice thing about them and it basically just tells you how much you make in terms of money instead of how much you make in terms of you know points and then having to exchange points so it kind of cuts out the hassle of that number twelve is zap surveys and zap surveys has a pretty good rating not a lot of users really but it’s still a solid app like I said is another one you would throw in if you just want to do as many surveys as possible make as much extra money as possible they have frequent surveys and you can also make small donations by doing these surveys to children in need and other causes so you know they give to charity you also make money it’s not like all the money you make goes to a charity and you don’t get to keep anything it does a little both so you’re kind of feeling good about yourself when you do these surveys and that’s why that’s one reason why I think their popularity is going to grow more and more but you get paid pretty well in your first survey as you can see I think it’s said on here yeah guaranteed at least six dollars on your first survey which is nice a little part of it they give some money to charity when you do these surveys you get to keep what you earn and then they do all kind of stuff like which one do you think looks best what do you think about this which is funny to you so they’re actually pretty fun surveys it’s not like okay well not going to ask you a lot of like boring stuff it’s actually like okay what picture what logo looks cooler you know how you feel about this how you text you know stuff that actually matters stuff that’s actually kind of entertaining to you to answer questions at the house so then it tells you your lifetime earnings how much you’ve helped children around the world with the cause and how much you’ve actually earned and kept so that’s really nice it’s a really solid app and it has a really good cause behind it and last but not least is earning station with number 13 and earning station is a fairly well rated app it doesn’t have near as many users as most of the others I’ve mentioned but you know do as many as you can if you want to make the most money off of surveys see it’s pretty easy to sign in just an email and a password or you can sign it with Facebook you have kind of a little profile on the side that tells you how many points you have gives you a quick link to redeem them for rewards it tells you how many surveys that you can do today and they also have other offers and things like that you can watch videos you can invite friends to do it and get bonuses for stuff like that but you know things like that and they have all kinds of different surveys that you can do probably around four per day or so and you can watch videos so it’s not like you have to do nothing but surveys they actually give you a few choices and so it can kind of give you a little more variety but you know they’re very detailed for sure in their display on the Google Play Store so you can kind of see all these different pictures about you know what it looks like but other than that that’s about it for this video I just want to do one that covers all the different surveys I know in a couple of my videos on line I have I’ve mentioned surveys as one way to make money online but I’ve never really done a video where I take all the top survey sites the high rated ones the ones that have quite a few users and put them in one place for you to kind of see which ones you should do so hopefully this video will be helpful to you if it was helpful please like and subscribe so and create more videos like this for you also if you want to let me know about your experiences with any of these or just let me know what you thought about the video in general let me know in the comments I’d love to hear from you they’d love to get your feedback and also get your advice whatever if you want to add to the topic and help others out that watch this video that would be great too and I’ll have the links to these pages and more show notes and related content to this video at self-made success.com so you could go there for that if you want also I’ll have a link in the description to that show notes page so other than that I hope you enjoyed the video and I hope you have a great day

BEST APPS THAT PAY YOU / How To Make Money fast Using your Phone / How to make money online

~~~~~~~~OPEN*ME~~~~~~~~~

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Hey Luv, this video is about some of the apps I use to make money. some you can use to make a full time income some good for fast cash. Every app I’m sharing I use myself. most of the app if not all can be found on ANDROID and IPHONE.
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This app pays me cash to take surveys. You should try it! www.mysotg.com

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IBOTTA

Hey! Thought you would enjoy Ibotta (if you don’t already). It’s an easy to use, cash back rewards app.  I use it every time I shop, and thought you would like it too! Use my referral code, cmeguw, and you can get a $10 welcome bonus. Sign up at https://ibotta.com/r/cmeg

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Introduction to Networking

while I called tech support and they told me to unplug the router and plug it back in and well as you can see it you know I unplugged the router and I plugged it back in but hasn’t really done anything so I think this router is broken I think this is the router maybe maybe the router is this thing which one’s a router how what is any of this stuff anyway as we start using more and more sophisticated computing devices in our homes and small offices we need to think about the networking devices that are used to connect those computers those I pause those printers and everything else to each other and to the Internet networking devices are often overlooked things on the computer network that people just don’t think about very much this here is a Cisco router this is approximately a $500 device it doesn’t look cool it doesn’t look complicated there’s no there’s no holographs on here there’s no GPU numbers or CPU numbers but this device does networking very well it allows computers on the internal network to talk to each other and then get out on the internet and it does it like I say very very well this is a top-of-the-line product today we’re going to go over the devices that you will find in the average small network so whether you’re a residential client you’re a small business you will have these devices and these devices will be what allow your computers to talk to each other and then again get on the internet so this is an introduction to network in class and we’re going to go over the hardware and that the basic requirements to make your computers talk now the first thing that I’m going to talk about is I’m going to show you a basic diagram of how your your network next together and where the different components fit in so the first thing that we need to talk about is the internet cloud so the internet the internet cloud for all intents and purposes is the intranet so everything that you think of that is on the Internet whether it’s websites whether it’s virtual private network connections whether it’s email anything that you associate with the Internet resides in the Internet cloud so if you hear Internet cloud or cloud that is the Internet the reason we call it the cloud is the Internet is an insanely sophisticated system of networks and nobody really understands how it works it’s very complicated you can go on days and days and days and days in class on how the internet works so instead of going into all that we just call it the internet cloud so if you hear of the internet cloud or like cloud computing or any of that all that means is that the cloud is the internet so if you’re dealing with a cloud application that means that application is within the Internet so Internet equals cloud cloud equals Internet now the first device then that will be on your network the very first device that will connect your computers to the Internet will be it your modem so your modem is the first device that you own that that’s that’s part of your equipment that will connect you to the internet now behind that will be something called a router so this is another device that you that you will own that you will have and the router then then connects to the modem underneath your router you will have something called a firewall a firewall is a protective device that prize protect your network from hackers so that would be underneath the router underneath then the firewall will be something called this switch the switch you can think of the switch as a splitter of the internet signal so you can we’ll go into this in class you can have however many computers connected that you want but all of your computers or devices will connect into the switch and then the switch will then either allow them to communicate with each other or to go out onto the internet another device that will be on your network is of course a wireless access point the wireless access point will allow wireless computers and devices to then connect to the network so they will connect to the wireless access point which connects to the switch and then they can communicate either to other devices on the network or to the internet so basically you’ll have your computer that goes to a switch that goes through a firewall that goes through a router that goes through a modem and then you get to the internet so this seems like a lot of stuff it gets easier but this is this is the overall concept and diagram about how your network looks before we go any further I want to go over two concepts that always confuse everybody and it just makes everybody really frustrated so if we go over those concepts now hopefully you’ll be less frustrated later problem but you may be the first things we’re going to go over are we’re going to talk about speed and what it means and then the difference between something called a physical and a logical so let’s go over the concepts of physical and logical first within the the computer world we talked about about let’s say like computer devices and how they they connect to each other in the physical way and then in the logical way and what you need to understand is that these two things are not necessarily the same thing and many times are very very very different so the physical way that computers connect are you have let’s say you have a computer and then you have a network cable and that network cable physically runs all the way back to a switch summer and that switch is physically connected to a router and that router is physically connected to something else what you saw connected to something else so that computer is physically connected to the switch which is connected to the router etc well within the computer world we can also split things up logically so let’s say you have 20 computers and they’re all connected to the same switch well they are physically all connected to the same switch but what we can do in the computer world is within that switch we can put let’s say we can split those computers down the middle and put half of the computers ten of the computers logically onto one network and the other half logically onto another network so although the computers physically come together they physically they connect into that one switch logically they’re not able to talk to each other because it’s it’s split in that switch so when we do diagramming we’ll split everything out like I showed you the internet cloud the modem the router the firewall the switch and that is logically what happens those are logically all the different devices that are used but now now that we can cram a whole bunch of stuff into one little device you will find or you normally will find all of those logical devices are contained within one physical device so the modem the router the firewall the wireless access point and the switch are physically now one device now when we talk about in computer lingo they are all different devices they are logically different devices but they’ve all been built into one device so now there are one physical device so it’s hard to get a lot of people for them to get their head around but just remember that logical and physical are not necessarily the same thing so although you plug your computer into the same switch that everybody else is connected to you may not logically be part of that network and you may not be able to communicate with the other computers on that network the next thing we need to talk about is speed speed speed is is ridiculous what you should know that is data is is sized by two different types of measurement you can either have something called bits or you can have a bite so bits bits are signified by a lowercase B bytes are signified by an uppercase B so a Killough bit would be K lowercase B kilo byte would be K uppercase B what’s important is those two words sound very similar but it takes eight bits to equal one byte so a B equals one Big B so eight little bits equals one big bite now in the normal world when you were talking about storage when you were talking about how much data a harddrive can hold or a flash drive can hold or a CD can hold you’re talking about bytes so it’ll say megabytes are now gigabytes so you’ll see a hard drive that has you know 500 M B megabytes of storage well what the internet vendors do you know the Comcast’s the Verizon’s the quests of the world they they kind of mess with you because they know that you’re going to get confused when you buy internet service they tell you the speed in bits so if you have let’s say you’re with Comcast and you have a sophomore a second and you can download 12 megabit per second so that’s 12 Big M little B right that’s less than 2 megabytes I think it’s a yes 1 point 5 mega bytes because 8 bits are in a byte so if you’re looking at a hard drive and you’re thinking you know I want to upload 100 megabytes it’s going to take 8 times as long as you’re thinking because it takes 8 bit to make a byte so that that’s something that a lot of people get confused about but just keep that in the back of your head when you’re dealing with the internet or you’re transferring large amounts of data over the Internet is the Internet vendors tell you their speeds in bits data storage is in bytes and so it takes 8 bits to make one byte we’re now going to talk about the first device that connects your network to the Internet this device is called a modem so your modem can be for either a t1 connection it can be for a cable connection it can be for DSL or even be for a satellite interconnection internet connection any of these types of Internet connections require a modem to connect your network to to the Internet basically what the modem does is it turns your ethernet signal it turns the the protocol the language that you use on your internal network into the language that can be used on the internet so let’s say back in the day when you had the the old tile type modem in your computer used to hear that bird over well that sound was turning your data transmission it was turning your email or whatever you were trying to do into a signal that the telephone company could use so it turned the data into an audio signal the basic concept is true today so if you if you have a network that uses a DSL modem that the SL modem what happens is all the communications that are going out to the Internet hit that DSL modem the DSL modem then turns that that network communication into a language that Verizon or whatever your telephone company will understand and then that’s how it gets on the internet so the modem is the connector between the internet and and your network like I say there is a few types of different modems out there if you have a t1 connection you are most likely going to be using a device called an ad Tran a DTR AM this is something called a csu/dsu they’re not used a lot anymore just because T ones are very expensive but you know they’re there t ones are the best overall type of connection to the Internet but they are insanely expensive and today there they’re not very fast you can get something called T to s and T threes these are higher level T ones but they start getting stupidly expensive even now to in 2009 a t1 connection which is only 1.5 Meg’s per second is is about four to five hundred dollars you know compare that to Comcast Internet where for $200 a month you can get 50 Meg down 20 Meg up or verizon fios I think is the same for about 150 a month so the cost difference between a t1 line either FiOS or DSL or Comcast is huge but t1 lines do go farther so a lot of times if you cannot get DSL service in your area you cannot get cable internet or any of that a lot of times you will be able to get a t1 connection but just realize it’s going to be a lot more expensive the next type of connection is a DSL connection digital subscriber line these are provided by your phone company so if you’re with Verizon or Quest or any other other phone companies out there they will offer you a DSL connection DSL signals are generally very good and they come down in price so so here in Baltimore for about $15 a month you can get 756 K upload speed or download speed so it’s not incredibly fast but it’s fast enough for a lot of users what you should remember with DSL is dsls maximum speed is somewhere around 12 megabit per second it will never get faster than that it’s a it’s a problem or it’s a limitation of the technology so Comcast is always getting faster or cable modems are getting faster fiber optic modems are getting faster DSL will never be faster than 12 megabits per second it’s just a logical problem the nice part with DSM is that you have a solid connection between your modem and the central office and the telephone office where you connect to the internet unlike some of the other types of internet connections that share the bandwidth to a central place that gets on the internet you have a dedicated line between your house and Verizon so it doesn’t matter if a hundred people get on the internet or a million people get on the Internet at the exact same time you do you will never see a reduction service you know your your speed will not go down because all of your neighbors got on the internet at the same time that’s one of the good parts with DSL you should remember it’s DSL is asynchronous data transfer what this means is you you can download faster than you can upload so with DSL in our area you never are able to upload any more than 700 56 kilobits per second so it’s just something to think about most people this doesn’t matter unless you have a web server or if if you’re a business this may matter if people are using something called VPN to get into your network because then you will need to send data out to the Internet so this may be a problem so just remember you may have 8 megabits per second download speed but your upload speed will probably be only 756 kilobits per second the next type of connection is cable modem the cable modems have come a long way in the past 8 or 10 years they now are a lot more solid a lot more stable there’s a lot fewer problems using cable internet nowadays cable internet has introduced new technology called DOCSIS 3.0 that when it is fully implemented will allow for a hundred and sixty megabit per second download speed and I think it’s 80 megabit per second upload speed so technology that already exists has already been proven can give you speeds of up to 160 megabits per second download and like I say about 80 um at this point the cable companies are simply implement you know it’s just a cost thing it already exists they already know they can do it it’s not a huge issue doing it they just need enough money to do it the thing with the cable connections is unlike the DSL you do have to share that the main bandwidth that goes back to the internet so in some areas if a lot of people get on the Internet at the exact same time you can notice a massive reduction in speed so some days on my connection I get up to 20 megabits per second download speed and other days I only get 8 megabits per second download speed the reason is the more people that are sharing that that internet connection this is the slower the your access to the Internet may be there is also a satellite internet out there not a lot of people use this this is good if you’re just out in the middle of nowhere because you can literally be in the middle of a desert and you can get satellite internet the problem is the download speed isn’t too bad it’s about 1.5 megabits per second but the upload speed is absolutely atrocious you cannot do any type of real-time communication you can’t do voice over IP you can’t do anything like remote desktop you can’t do anything yeah that requires communication back and forth over the internet connection but if all you need to do is be able to webpages and download things off the internet satellite is out there they also have new wireless services the 4G networks you may have heard Oh from Sprint and now from Verizon these are starting to come into their own basically with these is you get a little wireless device that that connects to the cell towers of either Verizon or Sprint or whatever cell phone company in your area is providing the service so it’s just like if you had DSL or cable modem you hook one of these wireless modems into your neck work and then your network then connects to the internet through that wireless modem this is still a relatively new commercial technology so I can’t go into it a lot because it hasn’t really been tried and true tested in the real world but it is a possibility if you’re having issues right wiring and such you may use one of these wireless modems to connect your network out to the Internet so now that we understand modems the next device that under that is underneath a modem in your average network is something called a router so what the router does is the router allows you to separate different networks so let’s say you’re in a building and you’re sharing the internet connection between multiple different businesses in one building so sometimes you may become a tenant of a building and they offer you internet connection as part of the service well all of the tenants within the building may be sharing the same internet connection so they need some way to separate the different tenants onto their own private networks because you don’t want tenants hacking together you know you don’t want it all completely open so in that scenario what would happen is your internet connection would be split out from the modem and that would go to different routers for the different tenants within the building so every tenant would have their own router so what this allows to happen is each tenant no matter how many computers they have on their own internal network can go out through the router and go into the internet but they cannot get into one of the other people’s internal networks see you can go out through the router but you would not be able to loop and get back in and be able to hack anybody else’s network so routers are used to illogically to divide networks and this again is used normally for internet connections if you want to use only one internet connection but provide that internet connection to multiple users on multiple tenants on the network basically you would have one internet connection and then multiple routers connected so all of those networks can then connect to the internet without having to worry about anybody hacking them now underneath your router you normally have the firewall the firewall is a device that tries to prevent hackers from being able to get into your network through the internet firewalls are part of their own class they’re they’re part of a security function and nowadays especially they get very very complicated back in the old days they were their own standalone devices so underneath the router you would have a firewall and the firewall would try to prevent Internet traffic that you didn’t want to have happen so you didn’t want if you didn’t want anybody to get in from the outside world you would use a firewall and you would block like I say hackers from trying to get into your internal network from the outside world nowadays firewalls have become much more complicated and you can’t just say that they’re underneath the the router there’s software firewalls that are now built into each individual computer there’s their intrusion protection systems where you have entire servers that run a network of firewalls within your computer within your network so firewalls now are much more complicated than just a just a simple box thrown on the network but firewalls are a security device if you have a firewall it will nowadays it will be built into either your modem or into your router what you should remember is that if it is built into your modem or your router and you turn the firewall on if you’re using the firewall within the modem or router it will block Internet services for the entire network so if you don’t want people to be able to get on to websites for some reason they use something called port 80 so if you block port 80 in the firewall built into either the router or the modem then nobody on the entire network will be able to get to a website so firewalls are security devices if you use the one that is built into either your your modem or router remember that it will affect the entire network and may have some unintended consequences so but again this is part of a different class and so we’ll talk this more later so speaking about firewalls and keeping hackers and people that you want out of your network from getting into your network from the internet you may also need people from outside of your office to be able to get onto your local network most people use something called a VPN to do this a virtual private network what this allows is it allows computers that are anywhere in the world to connect to your internal network and as far as the computers and the networking devices are concerned that computer is now inside your network so if somebody is sitting in China and wants to print to your printer and Milwaukee they can connect to your network using VPN a virtual private network and then hit the print button and something will print out in the office in Milwaukee so somebody on a VPN can connect to all the shared files or folders share printers any resources that are shared on the internal network they will be able to access one thing to keep in mind though is they will be able to access it but a lot more slowly because your internal network works at at least 100 megabits per second which is pretty fast so but the person on the outside world remember they have to go through the internet so depending on what their internet speed is and what your internet speed is and any problems going on in the Internet right at that moment things can take a while things get very slow so like in my business I used to try to use QuickBooks through VPN through Virtual Private Network it was just too big it was too complicated of a program to work properly I could connect to it I could log in but the amount of data that needed to be transferred back and forth was just ridiculous so the VPN allows somebody from the outside world to connect to your internal network it does this through a what’s called a client-server architecture so you have a server inside your network this is a logical server it’s called a VPN endpoint so this endpoint has things like usernames and passwords of the people that are allowed to connect to the network using the p.m. Virtual Private Network then the client computer you normally install a little client application that can connect to that VPN endpoint you you give that client applications of information including your username and password it will then connect to the VPN end point it’ll authenticate and then as long as everything’s okay that VPN endpoint will then allow the computer to to be on the network so you have the client connects to the endpoint that gets you on the network why I now say that the VPN endpoint is a logical server is again back in the days there used to be things called radius servers or servers that all they did was allow people remote access to the network now for the most part this type of server service is built into another device so if you have a Windows server that has this service built into it you can simply turn it on you do not need an additional device to make this happen many of the commercial routers that you buy have this service built into them so they have a VPN service already built into them and if you go through your configuration routine you can just you can use that you don’t have to buy another another device another widget so Virtual Private Network allows people in the outside world to connect to your ends and be your internal network and it does so very securely so now after you have your your modem you have your router you have your firewall you have some of the other stuff that we’ve talked about now you come to the to the device that connects all of the devices on the network together to allow them to talk to each other this device is either called a hub or a switch hugs and switches are two different things if you have a hub on your network you need to pull it out and you need to throw it in the trash hubs are completely and utterly obsolete they were obsolete a decade ago they were obsolete back in 2000 if you still have one and you’re having networking problems if your network is slow it’s probably because you have a hub to see whether you have a hub or a switch you just look on the the front of it or on the top and it’ll tell you somewhere whether it’s a hub or a switch so on this switch if you can see that auto focus is see it’s a gigabit switch so a switch is something that you want a hug is not the difference between a hub and a switch is a hub is dump it has no intelligence whatsoever a switch has a little bit of intelligence and that little bit of intelligence makes a world of difference hubs basically split the internet signal or the network signal to everybody equally it is literally like a complicated cable splitter so you know you have a cable wire coming in your house you plug it into a splitter with you know three four or eight different connections and that runs two three four eight different TVs in your house that is what a hub does for computers the problem is this will go into another class because it gets complicated about how Ethernet and tcp/ip and all of that work the thing is that’s completely dumb and that causes problems now switches are smart they understand how to transfer data properly so that the network efficiently so basically what you really just need to know is if you have a hog we need to throw it out you want a switch if you want more information we’ll have a class on it so all the devices all the wired devices everything with a network cable at some point comes into your your switch now as you will see on the back of a switch it has ports basically the ports all the computers plug into these ports one of these ports goes to your router that’s what connects everything together switches I can have as few as four ports the average small business somebody probably like you what I have in my shop you can get switches with up to 48 ports so these are single devices they’re about yay big and they they can connect up to 48 computers if you’re in really great big enterprise a large company environments they have switches that will I mean just hundreds or a thousand users but those cost a hundred thousand dollars or more so I don’t think you’re going to be using those anytime soon so all of the all the connections to the to the computers and devices come into the switch and that’s how they all talk you will hear about what are called managed and unmanaged switches so as I told you hubs are completely done they they have no brain power they’re just there is that there is splitters the next level up is an unmanaged switch so an unmanaged switch has a little bit of brain power but everything is absolutely automatic in it so you can’t configure anything inside like this which you cannot configure anything you have to hope and pray that it’s doing what it’s supposed to do the next level up is something called a managed switch this gets complicated but like when you’re dealing with buildings or businesses that may be using 48 different computers the manage switch allows you to go to go into the switch and program the switch to do certain things again this gets complicated we’ll go into a different class but basically the manage which allows you to tune the network to make it work properly it allows you to play with things like quality of service and other high-level networking stuff that you don’t need to know about right now but basically the manager switch allows you to play and to change settings in the switch unmanaged switches don’t allow you to do that so the switch is what allows everything to connect together you as a small business or person will see switches either fork or all the way up to about 48 port they do have larger switches but again you probably will not see them because then you’re talking about $100,000 you will notice on the new switches it will say speed so there we go this one is 10 100 1000 so this is a gigabit connection networking has three speeds right now they had the 10 megabit connection speed this was about 20 years old at this point then they had the 100 megabit connection speed this is a speed that almost all networks run off of it’s just it’s been the standard or it was the standard for at least 10 years and now they have the gigabit on networking speed which is a thousand megabits per second this is the latest standard but your switch needs to be able to support the speed so if you really if you want the the fastest communication between all your computers on the network then you need to make sure your computer is capable of gigabit networking and then that your switch is capable of gigabit networking a lot of people now are buying these computers with really fast networking cards in them but then connecting them to the old switches and therefore the the speed of the switch will never be able to match this the speed of the computer so it will always be slower than it could be now that you have all of your wired devices talking to each other all of the computers on your network now talk to each other and then go out on the Internet now we need to deal with your wireless devices whether they’re wireless printers whether they’re your little iPhone or laptop computers those devices now need to be able to communicate with everything else on the network they do this through something called a wireless access point all a wireless access point is is it is a device that allows wireless computers and devices to connect to the network so it’s a device usually about this big some of them have a little Antanas on them some of them do not it doesn’t really matter as long as they’re wireless access point so those wireless access points all the computers wirelessly connect to them and then they will have one cable that goes from that wireless access point into the Swick and so that is how all of the device the wireless devices can then communicate with the wired devices and the wired devices can communicate with a wireless device through the wireless access point you will hear about four standards for wireless access points the first part of the standard is something called 802 11 this is just the the number of the standard you will then hear about a B G and n so eight 802 11 B a 2 – 11 G 802 11 n 802 11 a was a very fast very good standard that was pushed by Intel a few years ago and it did flopped it was technically it was fine technically was a fine standard just you know in the quirks of the business it gives did at 60 so if you see 802 11 a wireless networking devices don’t really worry about them because nobody really uses them and so don’t know try to buy them either if you see like 802 11 a wireless equipment cheap don’t run out and buy it because because you won’t be able to use it on anything a is not a Hannibal with any other type of the networking so G is compatible with B networks it is compatible with G and B networks B is compatible with B he and networks nobody is compatible with a it’s not a backward compatible or forward compatible standard so like I say a exists but it kind of died so if you see it it was a fine standard that died don’t really worry about it and unless you actually have it on your network the next standard is 802 11 B this is a standard that came out probably about 10 years ago at this point it’s been awhile it was 11 megabits per second um it wasn’t a bad wireless standard it was it was pretty slow we’re gonna have a lot of area but you know it wasn’t bad for the first standard so you have 802 11 B that was 11 megabits per second you then get went up to 802 11 G that came out probably about seven or eight years ago at this point that is up to 54 megabits per second and is a lot faster a lot more stable than B wireless networks and has been the standard now for you know since it came out at least six or seven years now so but B and G networks are compatible so if you have a B wireless card it can work on a G network if you have a G wireless card it can we’re going to be networked at this point though you shouldn’t have be around B B is old I mean it’s really old it’s something to know about but if you have it on your network if you’re using it just replace it throw it away and replace it because at this point it really is old the new standard is 802 11 in this just got ratified very very recently they’ve had something called pre n so the process to get standards implemented to get everybody to agree on a standard can take a long time to happen so a lot of companies come up with pre standards so what they do is they they look at what the current draft of this and it is before is actually accepted and then they create their devices around that so you will see there are a lot of devices out a few months ago that were pre in devices so what it was was the in standard had not been ratified so they created devices we’re pretty similar to the draft what you should remember now the end the standard has been ratified if you have these pre end devices then they may act a little quirky on the network because remember they were created before the standard was was finalized before it was completed so there might be some weird stuff in that that pre end device that you have or that pre a wireless access point that doesn’t make things on the network work well if I were you if I had the money and I had a pre end device I would probably try to get a new one because you could get weird problems like I say because it was created to a standard but the standard wasn’t finished yet and you know if you’re in the computer world I think you understand what that means now what is nice with the 802 11 in the standard is it allows for a much larger area to be covered by the wireless network so 802 11 and networks are twice as large as G networks they’re a lot faster than T networks I don’t know the exact number right now but it’s at least two times faster than G networks and the best thing about 802 11 in wireless networks is they allow for real-time video and voice communications how wireless networks worked in the past you would have a lot of problems with real-time communication so like voice over IP if you were using Skype or Google Talk or yahoo chat if you try to do that over a B or G wireless network a lot of times you get into weird problems simply because how the technology was built it was not built for real-time communications 802 11 n is built for real Communications and so that means we’re probably going to get a lot of really cool wireless devices brace it so what you should remember about wireless devices is you need a wireless access point the wireless access point that allows all the devices to connect to the network be key and in networking devices are all compatible with each other a is not don’t use a unless you it’s a legacy device that’s on your system otherwise don’t don’t even think about you know if it comes up really cheap don’t worry about it then the the BGN B is the slowest key is better in is the best that it is available right now and it gives you real-time voice video communication I want to take a moment to go into cabling most people don’t don’t think about cabling enough they they think of the cable that runs from their computer into the little jack in the wall and then that’s all I think about they don’t they don’t think about anything else so I’m going to take a little field trip in my store and show you how the cabling is run and what that what that means for the for your network so basically you have the cable that runs from your computer it then runs to the jack in the wall that gag has a cable maybe all the way up to 300 feet that then runs through the wall and runs through your building all the way down is something called a patch panel add the patch panel you then have another connector and that connector is what then gets plugged into the switch that we’ve talked about so let me let’s take a second and take a look around my store and show you what I’m talking about okay so it’s a little dark in here but as you can see this is the the normal network plug that you would plug your computer into so the the cable goes from your computer it will go in here then as you see on the bottom then there’s cable that comes out and this is what will run to the patch panel okay so now from that connection upstairs the cable runs down underneath the floor here you can see all the cables you can see see the cables coming together now here you see all the cables from the rest of the building so now we have about 15 cables that are all running down this one pipe and zip tied to it okay so now here we can see all the cables for the entire building come to this one area and they all get connected into the back of what is called a patch panel so the patch panel is this device right here all the cables get connected into it and then you use something called a patch cable so a cable that goes from the patch panel into the Swick so this is one of those big 48 pork switches I was talking about so this allows the computer upstairs to be connected into the port that’s upstairs that port has a cable that runs all the way down here runs into this patch panel and then from this patch panel you’re able to make the connection into the switch now you may wonder why you use something like a patch panel because it does cost money you know somebody has to install it yeah yeah yeah what the patch panel allows you to do is you know you’re going to be moving people around your building or the people might be in one location next year when they’re not there now so what you can do is you can run cabling to all the places that you might need a wired connection you can then connect those to the patch panel in your basement or wherever your server room is but you don’t actually have to connect them to the switch so think about this you can have in your building 200 network connections so they’re they’re all run if somebody needs a network connection they can plug into it but then you have a only a 48 ports which because you would only connect the network cables that need to be live at the moment so if your desk is here then you would make sure that that poor is live that port is connected to the switch at the patch panel well if you move your desk over here you might use a different network connection and then you would make that one live you would you would take the connection that was used over here down in the basement or your server room and then connect it to this other port on the patch panel so that’s why patch panels are used it makes everything nice neat orderly and you can run far more network connections than your using at the moment so like I say is you can run 200 network cables throughout your building and only use one 48 ports which because at any one moment you’re not using 200 connections you’re only using 48 so if somebody moves you can pull it out you know out of the patch panel and move it around but you don’t have to buy 200 ports of a switch that can get much more expensive now in this class we’ve been talking about network devices we’ve been talking about things like wireless access points switches routers firewalls modems we haven’t been talking about the normal computer stuff that you’re used to like computers in the networking world everything that is on the network is called a networking device so everything that’s on on the the network you know whether it’s a router whether it’s a voice over IP phone whether it’s a computer is a networking device you will hear the term clients and servers so in your business or your organization you probably have a server if nothing else you have something called a file server so you have one central computer that stores all the files that everybody accesses over the network so all a server is is it is a networked device that provides something to the rest of the network so if you have a print server this is a networked device that allows other computers to print through so if you have a shared printer then your computer is a print server if you have shared files then you have a file server so all the server is is it’s a device that provides services to two other computers on the network there is a difference and you should just remember those keep this in the back of your head there’s a difference between a server and a Windows server so a server again is a device that provides services for the network whatever it is any computer can be a server windows 98 computer can be a server Windows XP computer computer can be a server a windows small business server is a server then there are Windows servers Windows servers are a type of operating system that has been created by Microsoft so these are very specific types of operating systems that provide very specific functions that’s off in its own little world so a Windows server is a server but that’s not the only type of server that’s out basically fire site servers anything that provides services again clients then are any devices on the network that get services from a server so your computer you sit at if you send a print job to a printer that is shared on another computer you are a client of that computer if you access a file stored on another computer you are a client of that computer so the client is a computer or device that accesses something on another computer that’s all our clients and servers and devices are what they mean the one thing to remember though is is server there’s their servers in the computer world and then their servers in the Microsoft world and they are two different critters what you just remember servers in the computer world are any computers or devices that provide services to the rest of the network servers and the Microsoft Windows world is a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 2008 NT and they do very specific things so that was the introduction to networking class we’ve gone over a lot of the networking devices and I’m trying to explain to you how they tie in so that computers and devices on your network can talk to each other and then go out and get to the internet this is an interrupter e-class coming out of this you’re not going to know everything you’re not going to be a master of networking this this just gives you the basis so that we can delve deeper into the subject in the future we’ve gone over the basic concepts of speed the difference between the megabytes and megabits one byte equals eight bits keep that in mind we’ve gone over what is a logical them what is physical so physical is the actual devices the equipment that you pick up and it’s how things are physically connected this cable goes to that box logical is how it all actually works so many devices can be connected to one switch physically but inside that switch they may be logically divided up into different networks so all they know they connect to one switch they don’t necessarily are not able to communicate with each other so we’ve talked about modems they’re the devices that connect your local network to the Internet we talked about routers routers are used to separate different networks this is mainly used like I say in buildings with multiple tenants where they give you internet access so in order to separate those tenants so they don’t hack each other you would have different routers and that would separate the different networks out we talked a little bit about firewalls just a little bit because firewalls are big subject now and like I say they are no longer simply and only a networking device basically firewalls protect your network from being hacked beyond that it gets complicated you know either take another class here or learn more about it because firewalls get really complicated but they protect your network you then have the switch the switch is what all your networking devices connect into so every device connects into that switch and then they can talk to each other we talked a little bit about hubs as in if you have a hub throw it away because it is dark if you if you look at it if you if you look at the device and it says hub throw it in the trash simple that’s a troubleshooting technique if it’s a hub throw it in the trash by switch a switch is again there’s a either managed or unmanaged switches unmanaged switches are completely and utterly automatic there is nothing that you can do there’s nothing you can do with it you just plug it in and you hope it works manage switches you can go in and you can program them to do certain things again that gets complicated that’s another subject area but you should know that that some switches you can program them to do certain things and other switches you can so either managed or unmanaged switch we then talked about your wireless access points how there’s a BGN types of networks in is the best and it’s the newest the good for the best part about it is you can do real-time communications over it so you can do voice over IP you can use Skype Google Chat you can use digital surveillance systems you can do a lot of things on an in network that were you were not able to do before with BG networks a networks were fine for their time but it was not a standard that was ever picked up so don’t worry about a networks B and G they were good for their time now they’re now they’re gone I showed you a little bit about cabling so when you plug in that port in the wall there’s actually a cable that then runs all the way to wherever your server room is and plugs into the patch panel the patch panel is you then take a patch cord and plug in the Portland patch panel to the switch the reason you do this is so you don’t have to buy you know 300 ports which if you’re only using 24 ports because you can have more ports in your business or office space than you are actually using if you the patch panel we talked about client servers and devices so network devices is any device that is on the network whether it’s a router whether it’s a switch whether it’s an access point whether it’s an iPod whether it’s your computer whether it’s a print network printer that is a print device servers are any devices on the network that provide services to the rest of the network so a printer can have a print server built into it because if you plug a cable directly into the printer and then plug that into the wall other computing devices on the network can connect to that and print so a printer can be its own print device or you can have a printer plugged in to a computer and you can have that computer share the printer and that’s how the the printer is now shared so the computer is the print server because the the computer is allowing access to that printer clients clients are simply computers on the network that use a service from some server on the network whether they’re using a shared file somewhere whether they’re printing to a shared printer or whatever a client uses a service provided by somebody else servers their server like the big server name so servers in the computing world again are any computers that provide services to other computers on the network then there’s a Windows Server Microsoft Windows servers are specific types of operating systems that do very specific things so just remember servers are any computers on the network that provide service and then there’s Microsoft Windows servers that are their own little kettle of fish so that’s that’s the class on this I hope you understand what’s going on the the big thing to remember now is all these different devices we talked about we talked about routers we talking about firewalls we talked about switches we talked about VPN endpoints again that’s logically how it works now the devices that you buy have all these logical devices built into them physically so this router here is a router it’s a firewall it’s a VPN endpoint it’s a switch we connect up to four different computers or networking devices to it so this one physical device serves multiple logical functions so just keep that in mind so don’t like I say don’t don’t go up the store and try to look for a standalone firewall you you probably won’t find it all of the vices are now normally built in to one physical device so so again I’m Eli the computer guy this was introduction to networking and we’ll see you at the next class

Computer Networks: Crash Course Computer Science #28

hi I’m Kerry Ann and welcome to crash course computer science the Internet is amazing in just a few keystrokes we can stream videos on YouTube hello read articles on Wikipedia order supplies on Amazon video chat with friends and Suites about the weather without a doubt the ability for computers and their users to send and receive information over a global telecommunications network forever change the world a hundred and fifty years ago sending a letter from London to California would have taken two to three weeks and that’s if you paid for express mail today that email takes a fraction of a second this million fold improvement in latency that’s the time it takes for a message to transfer juiced-up the global economy helping the modern world to move at the speed of light on fibre optic cables spanning the globe you might think that computers and networks always went hand-in-hand but actually most computers pre-1970 were humming away all alone however as big computers started popping up everywhere and low-cost machines started to show up on people’s desks it became increasingly useful to share data and resources and the first networks of computers appeared today we’re going to start a three-episode arc on how computer networks came into being and the fundamental principles and techniques that power them [Music] the first computer networks appeared in the 1950s and 60s they were generally used within an organization like a company or research lab to facilitate the exchange of information between different people and computers this was faster and more reliable than the previous method of having someone walk a pile of punch cards or a reel of magnetic tape to a computer on the other side of the building which was later dubbed as sneakernet a second benefit of networks was the ability to share physical resources for example instead of each computer having its own printer everyone could share one attached to the network it was also common on early networks to have large shared storage drives ones too expensive to have attached to every machine these relatively small networks of closeby computers are called local area networks or lands and LAN could be as small as two machines in the same room or as large as a university campus with thousands of computers although many land technologies were developed and deployed the most famous and successful was Ethernet developed in the early 1970s at Xerox PARC and still widely used today in its simplest form a series of computers are connected to a single common Ethernet cable when a computer wants to transmit data to another computer it writes the data as an electrical signal on to the cable of course because the cable is shared every computer plugged into the network sees the transmission but doesn’t notice the data is intended for them or another computer to solve this problem Ethernet requires that each computer has a unique media access control address or MAC address the unique address is put into a header the prefix is any data sent over the network so computers simply listen to the Ethernet cable and only process data when they see their addressing the header this works really well every computer made today comes with its own unique MAC address for both Ethernet and Wi-Fi the general term for this approach is carrier sense multiple access or CSMA for sure the carrier in this case is any shared transmission medium that carries data copper wire in the case of Ethernet and the air carrying radio waves for Wi-Fi many computers can simultaneously sense the carrier has the sense and multiple access and the rate at which the carrier can transmit data is called its bandwidth unfortunately using a shared carrier has one big drawback when network traffic is like computers can simply wait for pilots on the carrier and then transmit their data but as network traffic increases the ability that two computers will attempt to write data at the same time also increases this is called a collision and the data gets all garbled up like two people trying to talk on the phone at the same time fortunately computers can detect these collisions by listening to the signal on the wire the most obvious solution is for computers to stop transmitting wait for silence and then try again problem is the other computer is going to try that too and other computers on the network that have been waiting for the carrier to go silent will try to jump in during any pause this just leads to more and more collisions seeing everyone is talking over one another and has a backlog of things they need to say like breaking up with a boyfriend over a family holiday dinner terrible idea Ethernet had a surprisingly simple and effective fix when transmitting computers detects a collision they wait for a brief period before attempting to retransmits as an example let’s say one second of course this doesn’t work if all the computers use the same wait duration they just collide again one second later so a random period is added one computer might wait 1.3 seconds while another weighs 1.5 seconds with any luck the computer that waited 1.3 seconds will wake up find the carrier to be silent and start transmitting when the 1.5 second computer wakes up a moment later it’ll see the carrier’s in use and will wait for the other computer to finish this definitely helps but doesn’t totally solve the problem so an extra trick is used as I just explained if a computer detects a collision while transmitting it will wait one second plus some random extra time however if it collides again which suggests network congestion instead of waiting another 1 second this time it will wait 2 seconds if it collides again it will wait 4 seconds and then 8 and then 16 and so on until it’s successful with computers backing off the rate of collision goes down and data starts moving again freeing up the network family dinner saved this backing off behavior using an exponentially growing wait time is called exponential back-off both Ethernet and Wi-Fi use it and so do many transmission protocols but even with clever tricks like exponential back-off you can never have an entire University’s worth of computers on one shared Ethernet cable to reduce collisions and improve efficiency we need to shrink the number of devices on any given shared carrier what’s called the collision domain let’s go back to our earlier Ethernet exam Paul where we had six computers on one shared cable aka one collision domain to reduce the likelihood of collisions we can break this network into two collision domains by using a network switch it sits between our two smaller networks and only passes data between them if necessary it does this by keeping a list of what MAC addresses are on what side of the network so if a one’s transmitted to see the switch doesn’t forward the data to the other network there’s no need this means if he wants to transmit two F at the same time the network is wide open and two transmissions can happen at once but if F wants to send data to a then the switch passes it through and the two networks are both briefly occupied this is essentially how big computer networks are constructed including the biggest one of all the infinite which literally interconnects a bunch of smaller networks allowing Internet work communications what’s interesting about these big networks is that there’s often multiple paths to get data from one location to another and this brings us to another fundamental networking topic routing the simplest way to connect two distant computers or networks is by allocating a communication line for their exclusive use this is how early telephone systems work for example there might be five telephone lines running between Indianapolis and Missoula if John picked up the phone wanting to call Hank in the 1910s John would tell a human operator where he wanted to call and they’d physically connect John’s phone line into an unused line running to Missoula for the length of that call that line was occupied and if all five lines were already in use John would have to wait for one to become free this approach is called circuit switching because you’re literally switching whole circuits to route traffic to the correct destination it works fine but it’s relatively inflexible and expensive because there’s often unused capacity on the up side once you have a line to yourself or you have the money to buy one for your private use you can use it to its full capacity without having to share for this reason the military banks and other high importance operations still buy dedicated circuits to connect their data centers another approach for getting data from one place to another is message switching which is sort of like how the postal system works instead of a dedicated route from A to B messages are passed through several stops so if John Y is selected to Hank it might go from Indianapolis to Chicago and then hop to Minneapolis then Billings and then finally make it to Missoula each stop knows where to send it next because they keep a table of wet past letters given a destination address what’s neat about message switching is and it can use different routes making communication more reliable and fault tolerant sticking with our mail example if there’s a blizzard in Minneapolis grinding things to a halt the chicago mail hub can decide to route the letter through omaha instead in our example cities are acting like network rooters the number of hops our message takes along its route is called the hop count keeping track of the hop count is useful because it can help identify routing problems for example let’s say Chicago thinks the fastest route to Missoula is through Omaha but Omaha thinks the fastest route is through Chicago that’s bad because both cities are going to look at the destination address Missoula and end up passing the message back and forth between them endlessly not only is this wasting bandwidth but it’s a routing area that needs to get fixed this kind of error can be detected because the hop count is stored with the message and updated along its journey if you start seeing messages with high hop counts you can bet something has gone awry in the routing this threshold is called the hop limit a downside to message switching is that messages are sometimes big so they can clog up the network because the whole message has to be transmitted from one stop to the next before continuing on its way while a big file is transferring that whole link is tied up even if you have a tiny 1 kilobyte email trying to get through and either has to wait for the big file transfer to finish or take a less efficient route that’s bad the solution is to chop up big transmissions into many small pieces called packets just like with message switching each packet contains the destination address on the network so reaches know where to forward them this format is defined by the Internet Protocol or IP for short a standard created in the 1970s every computer connected to a network gets an IP address you’ve probably seen these as 4 8 bit numbers written with dots in between for example 1 7 2.2 17.7 dot 2 3 8 is an IP address for one of google’s servers with millions of computers online all exchanging data bottlenecks can appear and disappear in milliseconds network routers are constantly trying to balance the load across whatever routes they know to ensure speedy and reliable delivery which is called congestion control sometimes different packets from the same message take different routes through a network this opens the possibility of packets arriving at their destination out of order which is a problem for some applications fortunately there are protocols that run on top of IP like TC PYP they handle this issue we’ll talk more about that next week chopping up data into small packets and passing these along flexible routes with spare capacity it’s so efficient and fault tolerant it’s what the whole internet runs on today this routing approach is called packet switching it also has the nice property of being decentralized with no central authority or single point of failure in fact the threat of nuclear attack is why packet switching was developed during the Cold War today roof is all over the globe work cooperatively to find efficient routing –zz exchanging information with each other using special protocols like the internet control message protocol ICMP and the border gateway protocol BGP the world’s first packet switch Network and the ancestors of the modern Internet was the ARPANET named after the u.s. agency that funded it the Advanced Research Projects Agency here’s what the entire ARPANET looked like in 1974 each smaller circle is a location like a university or research lab that operated a Reuter they also plugged in one or more computers you can see PDP ones IBM system/360 and even an atlas in london connected over satellite link obviously the internet has grown by leaps and bounds in the decades since today instead of a few dozen computers online is estimated to be nearing 10 billion and it continues to grow rapidly especially with the advent of Wi-Fi connected refrigerators thermostats and other smart appliances forming an Internet of Things so that’s part one an overview of computer networks is it a series of tubes well sort of next week we’ll tackle some higher-level transmission protocols slowly working our way up to the world wide web I’ll see you then crash course computer science is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios at their channel you could check out a playlist of shows like brain craft community and PBS infinite series this episode was filmed at the chad and stacey emigholz studio in indianapolis indiana and it was made with the help of all these nice people and our wonderful graphics team is thought cafe thanks for the random access memories I’ll see you next time [Music]